Lesson Notes

Containerization Lesson Notes

Containerization Presentation



History of running a software

  • Early on, organizations ran applications on physical servers.
  • Install or use an existing operating system.
  • Install the tools needed by your software.
  • Install dependencies of your software.
  • Run your software.

Traditional Deployment

Traditional Deployment

Issues with traditional deployment

  • Isolation issue, no way to define resource boundaries for applications in a physical server, and this caused resource allocation issues.
  • Scaling issues as resources were underutilized.
  • It was expensive for organizations to maintain many physical servers.


Virtual Machines! How is virtualization possible?

  • Virtualizing hardware produces virtual machines (VMs).
  • Virtualization allows you to run multiple VMs on a single physical server. Each VM includes a full copy of an operating system, the application, necessary binaries, and libraries - taking up tens of GBs.
  • Virtualization allows more effortless adding and updating of applications that solve the scalability issue.
  • Virtualization allows better utilization of resources.
  • Virtualization isolates applications between VMs.

Virtualization Deployment

Virtualization Deployment


  • How is virtualization possible?
    • A hypervisor is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.
    • The hypervisor allows multiple VMs to run on a single machine.
  • The hypervisor has 2 types:
    • Type 1 Hypervisor, native, or bare-metal hypervisors.

    Example: VMware ESX and Citrix Xen servers. Type 1 Hypervisor

    • Type 2 Hypervisor, or hosted hypervisors.

    Type-2: VMware player and VirtualBox. Type 2 Hypervisor


Containers! What is a Container?

  • The process of virtualizing the operating system produces containers.
  • Container is a virtual operating system.
  • A container is an abstraction at the OS layer that packages code and dependencies together as a standardized unit of software.
  • Containers take up less space than VMs, boots quickly, and in isolation.
  • Containerization eliminates infrastructure wasted resources and utilizes them.

Containerized Deployment

Containerized Deployment

OS-level virtualization

How is containerization possible?

  • OS-level virtualization refers to an operating system paradigm in which the operating system allows the existence of multiple isolated user-space instances (containers).
  • OS-level virtualization solutions are the container engines.
  • A container engine is a managed environment for deploying containerized applications.

User-space instances have different names

  • Containers in \textbf{Docker} and Linux containers \textbf{LXC}.
  • VPS in \textbf{OpenVZ}
  • Virtual Kernel \textbf{DragonFly BSD}


  • The word virtualization applies to hardware and operating system.
  • Hardware virtualization produces virtual machines.
  • Operating system virtualization produces containers.
  • Containerization gives us better resource isolation with predictable application performance.
  • Containerization gives us better resource utilization with high efficiency and density.
  • They are loosely coupled, distributed, elastic, liberated micro-services.
  • Environmental consistency across development, testing, and production "It worked on my machine."
  • Agile application creation and deployment.

What is hybrid container architecture?

  • hybrid container architecture is an architecture combining virtualization on both hardware and OS levels.
  • Example: The container engine and associated containers execute on top of a virtual machine.
  • Use of a hybrid container architecture is also known as hybrid containerization.

Hybrid Container Architecture

Do windows have native containers?

  • You can have native windows containers but not Linux native containers yet.
  • Microsoft’s native hypervisor solution is Hyper-V@.
  • Using Hyper-V Microsoft supports running VMs natively on Windows, for example, Ubuntu on Windows (WSL).
  • Microsoft is working on the OS-level virtualization solution to run Linux native containers.


  1. Virtualization via containers
  2. OS-level virtualization
  3. Hyper-V
  4. What is a container?
  5. What is Kubernetes?
  6. Prep Windows for containers